Litters and Estimate of Gestation Period
|Photograph||Litter size||TL embryo* (m)||Mass embryo* (kg)||TL fem. (m)||M fem. (kg)||Capture date||Capture location||Reference|
|?||~0||~200 egg capsules in uteri suggesting blastodisc stage (Mollet et al. 2000, pdf)||5.55||16 Feb 1985||Kin, Okinawa, Japan||Uchida et al. (1996)|
|?||~0.1: lateral view||?, eggcases were found also||5.42||1930||7 Nov 2008||Brought to Southern Bay Dock, Taiwan||Victor Lin, pers. comm.|
|?, nutritive eggcases were photographed||4.5||> 900||14 Nov 2012||Caught off East coast of Taiwan. According to media reports,
the fish dealer donated the embryos to the Fishery Faculty of National Taiwan
More recent pics of embryos provided by Hua Hsun HSU (May 2014)
|Victor Lin, pers. comm.|
smaller than litter below
|?||1995 to 1996||Offshore waters of
|Pan-Wen Hsueh pers. comm.|
|8||0.5-0.6||One embryo was conserved and is on display at re-opened museum in East Taiwan||7?
using M=2000 kg gives ~ 6m TL
|~2000||13 Oct 1997||
V. Lin, pers. comm.
|20 Mar 2019||A pregnant female white shark was caught off eastern Taiwan. It was 4.7m long and gutted weight at auction was 1170 kg. The weight included the 15 midterm embryos discovered during gutting. Summary at People.com.
||Victor Lin pers. comm. based upon Taiwan News.|
>1 m; earlier 0.61 not correct
|20.4 kg (45 lbs); earlier 45/9 = 5.4 kg not correct||2500? (from photo caption)||Summer 1934||Alexandria, Egypt. In March 2016, Clinton Duffy's search thru the NZ National Library yielded an Auckland Star clipping (7 Sep 1934) which included 2 photos that indicated that the litter of 9 embryos was near-term rather than early-term.||Norman & Fraser (1937); Ellis & McCosker (1991)|
|18 Jan 2007||Commercial fishermen in the East China Sea netted the pups’
16-foot-long, 2,866-pound mother on Jan. 18. She was dead, but the seven
pups found inside her still were alive and, although premature, were transported
from the fishing dock in Yomitan to the Churaumi Aquarium at Ocean Expo
Park in Nago.
“The mother shark was believed to have been between the middle and late stages of pregnancy.”
David Allen and Chiyomi Sumida, Stars and Stripes
Pacific edition, Friday, January 26, 2007
|~1.0||Feb-Mar 1988||Taiwan fish market||D. A. Ebert|
|7||~1.0-1.1||~4.7||2 Apr 1986||Taiji, Wakayama, Japan||Uchida et al. (1996)|
|?||1.22 (48 inches)||?||?||?||Aug 1976||Female was trapped in a fisherman's net off Skonnet RI||Richard Ellis p.c.|
|>7, possibly 17||~1.1||10-20||~6.4||>2200||16 Jul 1996
~10 km off Malindi, Kenya (03 13'S, 40 07'E)
|Cliff et al. (2000)|
|5||~1.30||4.8||14 May 1992||Uchinoura, Kagoshima, Japan||Uchida et al. (1996)|
|4||1.32-1.35||27.65-31.50||5.87||>2000||26 Feb 2004||Gulf of Gabès, southern Tunisia||Saïdi et al. (2005)|
|5.15||22 May 1992||Toyo, Kochi, Japan||Uchida et al. (1996)|
|1360 incl. 7 pups||13 Nov 1991 Austral mid-spring||North Cape, New Zealand;
50 min. tape was taken by J. Bradley.
QuickTime video clip (~4 min/~10 MB) was prepared by Dave Powell. Video contains disturbing footage but this pregnant female provided valuable information on reproduction of white sharks.
|3-5||~ 1.5||~5.5||~ 9 Nov 2003; Austral mid-spring||Firth of Thames, about 2 km off the eastern end of Waiheke Island NZ||The New Zealand Herald|
|Photograph||Litter size||TL embryo* (mm)||Mass embryo* (kg)||TL fem. (m)||M fem. (kg)||Capture date||Capture location||Reference|
No reliable data is available of early- and mid-term embryos. Mollet et al. (2000, pdf) asssumed that the Kin, Okinawa, Japan specimen was early-term because of the presence of over 200 eggcases in the uteri and that the Alexandria (Egypt) specimen was mid-term. Thanks to efforts by Victor Lin, we now have data for an early-term and a second mid-term litter. Here I further assumed that parturtion in Northern and Southern Hemispheres are six months out of phase. Free-swimmers <~1.62 m TL from both hemispheres were included. Needs update with more recent information
2014 Publication by Christiansen et al. in PLOS One (PDF)
|Created April 2002; revised March 2016. Back to previous page Please send comments or corrections to email@example.com|